Bossa Nova Piano For BeginnersBossa Nova is a style of improvised music that originated in Brazil in the late 1950s.In terms of harmonic structure, Bossa Nova has a lot common with jazz music as both share a sophisticated use of seventh and extended chords.Whilst Bossa Nova is most commonly associated with the guitar, it’s also widely played on the piano both in a band and in a solo context. 3 Elements: Bass, Chords, & MelodyIt’s important to understand that playing solo Bossa Nova on the piano is much more difficult than in the context of a band.It is a challenge for the solo pianist to maintain the 3 core elements of Bossa Nova which is a steady bass line, syncopated chords and finally the melody on top. In a band these 3 roles are spilt out between the bass player, the piano and the vocalist or horn player.I’m going to break down these core elements individually and then we will put them all together.Start by isolating the bass line in your left hand.
Bebop bass line transcriptions Example 1 A classic bebop chord progression usually played fast and often practiced in 12 keys by the bebop musicians. Two choruses, the first in the key of F major the second in the key of Bb major.
Play along with a metronome and ensure that you are anticipating the downbeats.Next isolate the example right hand comping rhythm. There are many different comping rhythms used in Bossa Nova and understand that you can mix and match these different rhythms during a performance.When putting both hands together, focus on accuracy. Play as slowly as you need to and gradually increase the tempo.The next step is practice chord transitions over a Bossa Nova groove. You should be familiar with the concept of rootless voicings. If this is new to you, check out the related lessons on this page.
Playing rootless voicings will ensure smooth voicing leading between the chords and they will also give you easy access to the upper extensions and alterations in your right hand.
Player was a leading performer and composer of the bebop era. 'In spite of the explanations of the origins of these words, players actually did sing the words 'bebop' and 'rebop' to an early bop phrase as shown in the following example.' The term 'bebop' is derived from nonsense syllables (vocables) used in; the first known example of 'bebop' being used was in ' 'Four or Five Times', recorded in 1928. It appears again in a 1936 recording of 'I'se a Muggin'. A variation, 'rebop', appears in several 1939 recordings.
The first, known print appearance also occurred in 1939, but the term was little-used subsequently until applied to the music now associated with it in the mid-1940s. Claims that the original title 'Bip Bop' for his tune ', was the origin of the name bebop.Some researchers speculate that it was a term used by because it sounded like something he hummed along with his playing. Stated that the audiences coined the name after hearing him scat the then-nameless tunes to his players and the press ultimately picked it up, using it as an official term: 'People, when they'd wanna ask for those numbers and didn't know the name, would ask for bebop.' Another theory is that it derives from the cry of 'Arriba! Used by Latin American bandleaders of the period to encourage their bands.
At times, the terms 'bebop' and 'rebop' were used interchangeably. By 1945, the use of 'bebop'/'rebop' as nonsense syllables was widespread in music, for instance 's '. History Swing era influences. Dizzy Gillespie, at the Downbeat Club, NYC, ca 1947Bebop grew out of the culmination of trends that had been occurring within since the mid-1930s: less explicit timekeeping by the drummer, with the primary rhythmic pulse moving from the bass drum to the high hat cymbal; a changing role for the piano away from rhythmic density towards accents and fills; less ornate horn section arrangements, trending towards riffs and more support for the underlying rhythm; more emphasis on and freedom for soloists; and increasing harmonic sophistication in arrangements used by some bands.
The path towards rhythmically streamlined, solo-oriented swing was blazed by the of the southwest with as their musical capital; their music was based on blues and other simple chord changes, riff-based in its approach to melodic lines and solo accompaniment, and expressing an approach adding melody and harmony to swing rather than the other way around. Ability to play sustained, high energy, and creative solos was highly valued for this newer style and the basis of intense competition. Swing-era jam sessions and 'cutting contests' in Kansas City became legendary.
The was epitomized by the, which came to national prominence in 1937. 'Bebop wasn't developed in any deliberate way.' —One young admirer of the Basie orchestra in Kansas City was a teenage alto saxophone player named. He was especially enthralled by their tenor saxophone player, who played long flowing melodic lines that wove in and out of the chordal structure of the tune but somehow always made musical sense. Young was equally daring with his rhythm and phrasing as with his approach to harmonic structures in his solos.
He would frequently repeat simple two or three note figures, with shifting rhythmic accents expressed by volume, articulation, or tone. His phrasing was far removed from the two or four bar phrases that horn players had used until then. They would often be extended to an odd number of measures, overlapping the musical stanzas suggested by the harmonic structure. He would take a breath in the middle of a phrase, using the pause, or 'free space,' as a creative device. The overall effect was that his solos were something floating above the rest of the music, rather than something springing from it at intervals suggested by the ensemble sound. When the Basie orchestra burst onto the national scene with its 1937 recordings and nationally broadcast New York engagements, it gained a national following, with legions of saxophone players striving to imitate Young, drummers striving to imitate, piano players striving to imitate Basie, and trumpet players striving to imitate. Parker played along with the new Basie recordings on a until he could play Young's solos note for note.In the late 1930s the and the were exposing the music world to harmonically sophisticated musical arrangements by and, respectively, which implied chords as much as they spelled them out.
That understatement of harmonically sophisticated chords would soon be used by young musicians exploring the new musical language of bebop. The brilliant technique and harmonic sophistication of pianist inspired young musicians including Charlie Parker. In his early days in New York, Parker held a job washing dishes at an establishment where Tatum had a regular gig.One of the divergent trends of the swing era was a resurgence of small ensembles playing 'head' arrangements, following the approach used with Basie's big band. The small band format lent itself to more impromptu experimentation and more extended solos than did the bigger, more highly arranged bands.
The 1939 recording of ' by with a small band featured an extended saxophone solo with minimal reference to the theme that was unique in recorded jazz, and which would become characteristic of bebop. That solo showed a sophisticated harmonic exploration of the tune, with implied passing chords. Hawkins would eventually go on to lead the first formal recording of the bebop style in early 1944. Going beyond swing in New York As the 1930s turned to the 1940s, Parker went to New York as a featured player in the.
In New York he found other musicians who were exploring the harmonic and melodic limits of their music, including, a -influenced trumpet player who, like Parker, was exploring ideas based on upper chord intervals, beyond the chords that had traditionally defined jazz harmony. While Gillespie was with, he practiced with bassist and developed some of the key harmonic and chordal innovations that would be the cornerstones of the new music; Parker did the same with bassist while with McShann's group. Guitarist, who had arrived in New York in 1939 was, like Parker, an innovator extending a southwestern style.
Christian's major influence was in the realm of rhythmic. Christian commonly emphasized weak beats and off beats and often ended his phrases on the second half of the fourth beat. Christian experimented with asymmetrical phrasing, which was to become a core element of the new bop style. Bud Powell was pushing forward with a rhythmically streamlined, harmonically sophisticated, virtuosic piano style and was adapting the new harmonic ideas to his style that was rooted in Harlem playing. Drummers such as and were extending the path set by Jo Jones, adding the ride cymbal to the high hat cymbal as a primary timekeeper and reserving the bass drum for accents. Bass drum accents were colloquially termed 'bombs,' which referenced events in the world outside of New York as the new music was being developed. The new style of drumming supported and responded to soloists with accents and fills, almost like a shifting.
This change increased the importance of the string bass. Now, the bass not only maintained the music's harmonic foundation, but also became responsible for establishing a metronomic rhythmic foundation by playing a 'walking' bass line of four quarter notes to the bar.
While small swing ensembles commonly functioned without a bassist, the new bop style required a bass in every small ensemble. The kindred spirits developing the new music gravitated to sessions at, where Monk and Clarke were in the house band, and, where Max Roach was in the house band. Patch technomate 5402 patch. Part of the atmosphere created at jams like the ones found at Minton's Playhouse was an air of exclusivity: the 'regular' musicians would often reharmonize the standards, add complex rhythmic and phrasing devices into their melodies, or 'heads,' and play them at breakneck tempos in order to exclude those whom they considered outsiders or simply weaker players. These pioneers of the new music (which would later be termed bebop or bop, although Parker himself never used the term, feeling it demeaned the music) began exploring advanced harmonies, complex syncopation, altered chords and chord substitutions. The bop musicians advanced these techniques with a more freewheeling, intricate and often arcane approach. Bop improvisers built upon the phrasing ideas first brought to attention by Lester Young's soloing style.
They would often deploy phrases over an odd number of bars and overlap their phrases across bar lines and across major harmonic cadences. Christian and the other early boppers would also begin stating a harmony in their improvised line before it appeared in the song form being outlined by the rhythm section. This momentary dissonance creates a strong sense of forward motion in the improvisation. The sessions also attracted top musicians in the swing idiom such as,.
Byas became the first tenor saxophone player to fully assimilate the new bebop style in his playing. In 1944 the crew of innovators was joined by, a tenor saxophone player from the west coast in New York with the band, and a young trumpet player attending the,. Early recordings Bebop originated as 'musicians' music', played by musicians with other money-making gigs who did not care about the commercial potential of the new music.
It did not attract the attention of major record labels nor was it intended to. Some of the early bebop was recorded informally. Some sessions at Minton's in 1941 were recorded, with Thelonious Monk alongside an assortment of musicians including, Roy Eldridge, Don Byas, and Charlie Christian. Christian is featured in recordings from May 12, 1941 (Esoteric ES 548). Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie were both participants at a recorded jam session hosted by on February 15, 1943, and Parker at another Eckstine jam session on February 28, 1943 (Stash ST-260; ST-CD-535).Formal recording of bebop was first performed for small specialty labels, who were less concerned with mass-market appeal than the major labels, in 1944. On February 16, 1944, Coleman Hawkins led a session including Dizzy Gillespie and Don Byas, with a rhythm section consisting of (piano), (bass) and Max Roach (drums) that recorded ' ( 751), the first formal recording of bebop. Charlie Parker and Clyde Hart were recorded in a quintet led by guitarist for the label on September 15, 1944 ( Tiny's Tempo, I'll Always Love You Just the Same, Romance Without Finance, Red Cross).
Hawkins led another bebop-influenced recording session on October 19, 1944, this time with Thelonious Monk on piano, Edward Robinson on bass, and on drums ( On the Bean, Recollections, Flyin' Hawk, Driftin' on a Reed; reissue, PRCD-24124-2).Parker, Gillespie, and others working the bebop idiom joined the in 1943, then followed vocalist Billy Eckstine out of the band into the in 1944. The Eckstine band was recorded on, which were broadcast over the Armed Forces Radio Network and gained popularity for the band showcasing the new bebop style. The format of the Eckstine band, featuring vocalists and entertaining banter, would later be emulated by Gillespie and others leading bebop-oriented big bands in a style that might be termed 'popular bebop'.
Bossa Nova Bass Lines Pdf Merger
Starting with the Eckstine band's session for the label on December 5, 1944 ( If That's the Way You Feel, I Want To Talk About You, Blowing the Blues Away, Opus X, I'll Wait and Pray, The Real Thing Happened to Me), bebop recording sessions grew more frequent. Parker had left the band by that date, but it still included Gillespie along with Dexter Gordon and on tenor, on baritone, on bass, on drums, and on vocals. Blowing the Blues Away featured a tenor saxophone duel between Gordon and Ammons.On January 4, 1945, Clyde Hart led a session including Parker, Gillespie, and Don Byas recorded for the label ( What's The Matter Now, I Want Every Bit of It, That's the Blues, G.I. Blues, Dream of You, Seventh Avenue, Sorta Kinda, Ooh Ooh, My My, Ooh Ooh).Gillespie recorded his first session as a leader on January 9, 1945, for the label, with Don Byas on tenor, on trombone, Clyde Hart on Piano, Oscar Pettiford on bass, and on drums.
The session recorded I Can't Get Started, Good Bait, Be-bop (Dizzy's Fingers), and Salt Peanuts (which Manor wrongly named 'Salted Peanuts'). Thereafter, Gillespie would record bebop prolifically and gain recognition as one of its leading figures. Gillespie featured Gordon as a sideman in a session recorded on February 9, 1945 for the Guild label ( Groovin' High, Blue 'N' Boogie). Parker appeared in Gillespie-led sessions dated February 28 ( Groovin' High, All the Things You Are, Dizzy Atmosphere) and May 11, 1945 ( Salt Peanuts, Shaw 'Nuff, Lover Man, Hothouse) for the Guild label.
Parker and Gillespie were sidemen with Sarah Vaughan on May 25, 1945, for the Continental label ( What More Can A Woman Do, I'd Rather Have a Memory Than a Dream, Mean to Me). Parker and Gillespie appeared in a session under vibraphonist Red Norvo dated June 6, 1945, later released under the label ( Hallelujah, Get Happy, Slam Slam Blues, Congo Blues). All-star session of September 4, 1945 for the Apollo label ( Takin' Off, If I Had You, Twentieth Century Blues, The Street Beat) featured Parker and Gordon. Gordon led his first session for the Savoy label on October 30, 1945, with (Argonne Thornton) on piano, Gene Ramey on bass, and on drums ( Blow Mr Dexter, Dexter's Deck, Dexter's Cuttin' Out, Dexter's Minor Mad).
Parker's first session as a leader was on November 26, 1945, for the Savoy label, with Miles Davis and Gillespie on trumpet, Hakim/Thornton and Gillespie on piano, on bass and Max Roach on drums ( Warming Up a Riff, Now's the Time, Billie's Bounce, Thriving on a Riff, Ko-Ko, Meandering). After appearing as a sideman in the R&B-oriented Orchestra through 1944, Bud Powell was in bebop sessions led by Frankie Socolow on May 2, 1945 for the Duke label ( The Man I Love, Reverse the Charges, Blue Fantasy, September in the Rain), then Dexter Gordon on January 29, 1946 for the Savoy label ( Long Tall Dexter, Dexter Rides Again, I Can't Escape From You, Dexter Digs In). The growth of bebop through 1945 is also documented in informal live recordings.Breakout By 1946 bebop was established as a broad-based movement among New York jazz musicians, including trumpeters and, trombonists and, alto saxophonist, tenor saxophonist, baritone saxophonists and, vibraphonist, pianists and, bassist, and others who would contribute to what would become known as 'modern jazz'. The new music was gaining radio exposure with broadcasts such as those hosted. Bebop was taking root in Los Angeles as well, among such modernists as trumpeters and, alto players and, tenor players and, trombonist, pianists, Jimmy Bunn and, guitarist, bassists and, and drummers.
Gillespie's 'Rebop Six' (with Parker on alto, Lucky Thompson on tenor, Al Haig on piano, Milt Jackson on vibes, on bass, and on drums) started an engagement in Los Angeles in December 1945. Parker and Thompson remained in Los Angeles after the rest of the band left, performing and recording together for six months before Parker suffered an addiction-related breakdown in July. Parker was again active in Los Angeles in early 1947. Parker and Thompson's tenures in Los Angeles, the arrival of Dexter Gordon and later in 1946, and the promotional efforts of, and helped solidify the city's status as a center of the new music.Gillespie landed the first recording date with a major label for the new music, with the label recording Dizzy Gillespie And his Orchestra on February 22, 1946 ( 52nd Street Theme, A Night in Tunisia, Ol' Man Rebop, Anthropology).
Later Afro-Cuban styled recordings for Bluebird in collaboration with Cuban rumberos and, and arrangers and ( Manteca, Cubana Be, Cubana Bop, Guarache Guaro) would be among his most popular, giving rise to the Latin dance music craze of the late 1940s and early 1950s. Gillespie, with his extroverted personality and humor, glasses, lip beard and beret, would become the most visible symbol of the new music and new jazz culture in popular consciousness. That of course slighted the contributions of others with whom he had developed the music over the preceding years. His show style, influenced by entertainers, seemed like a throwback to some and offended some purists ('too much grinning' according to Miles Davis), but it was laced with a subversive sense of humor that gave a glimpse of attitudes on racial matters that black musicians had previously kept away from the public at large. Before the Civil Rights Movement, Gillespie was confronting the by lampooning it.
The intellectual subculture that surrounded bebop made it something of a sociological movement as well as a musical one. With the imminent demise of the big swing bands, bebop had become the dynamic focus of the jazz world, with a broad-based 'progressive jazz' movement seeking to emulate and adapt its devices. It was to be the most influential foundation of jazz for a generation of jazz musicians.
Beyond By 1950, bebop musicians such as and began to smooth out the rhythmic eccentricities of early bebop. Instead of using jagged phrasing to create rhythmic interest, as the early boppers had, these musicians constructed their improvised lines out of long strings of eighth notes and simply accented certain notes in the line to create rhythmic variety.
The early 1950s also saw some smoothing in Charlie Parker's style.During the early 1950s bebop remained at the top of awareness of jazz, while its harmonic devices were adapted to the new 'cool' school of jazz led by Miles Davis and others. It continued to attract young musicians such as,. As musicians and composers began to work with expanded music theory during the mid-1950s, its adaptation by musicians who worked it into the basic dynamic approach of bebop would lead to the development of post-bop. Around that same time, a move towards structural simplification of bebop occurred among musicians such as and, leading to the movement known as hard bop. Development of jazz would occur through the interplay of bebop, cool, post-bop, and hard bop styles through the 1950s.Musical style Bebop differed drastically from the straightforward compositions of the swing era and was instead characterized by fast tempos, asymmetrical phrasing, intricate, and rhythm sections that expanded on their role as tempo-keepers. The music itself seemed jarringly different to the ears of the public, who were used to the bouncy, organized, danceable tunes of Benny Goodman and during the swing era. Instead, bebop appeared to sound racing, nervous, erratic and often fragmented.
But to jazz musicians and jazz music lovers, bebop was an exciting and beautiful revolution in the art of jazz. 'Bebop' was a label that certain journalists later gave it, but we never labeled the music. It was just modern music, we would call it. We wouldn't call it anything, really, just music. Several bebop musicians headlining on, May 1948The classic bebop combo consisted of saxophone, trumpet, double bass, drums and piano. This was a format used (and popularized) by both Parker (alto sax) and Gillespie (trumpet) in their 1940s groups and recordings, sometimes augmented by an extra saxophonist or guitar (electric or acoustic), occasionally adding other horns (often a trombone) or other strings (usually violin) or dropping an instrument and leaving only a quartet.Although only one part of a rich jazz tradition, bebop music continues to be played regularly throughout the world.
Trends in improvisation since its era have changed from its harmonically-tethered style, but the capacity to improvise over a complex sequence of altered chords is a fundamental part of any jazz education.Influence The musical devices developed with bebop were influential far beyond the bebop movement itself. ' was a broad category of music that included bebop-influenced 'art music' arrangements used by big bands such as those led by, and, and the cerebral harmonic explorations of smaller groups such as those led by pianists. Voicing experiments based on bebop harmonic devices were used by and for the groundbreaking ' sessions in 1949 and 1950. Musicians who followed the stylistic doors opened by Davis, Evans, Tristano, and Brubeck would form the core of the and ' movements of the early 1950s.By the mid-1950s musicians began to be influenced by music theory proposed. Those who incorporated Russell's ideas into the bebop foundation would define the post-bop movement that would later incorporate into its musical language.was a simplified derivative of bebop introduced by and in the mid-1950s.
It became a major influence until the late 1960s when and gained ascendancy.The movement of the 1980s and 1990s revived the influence of bebop, post-bop, and hard bop styles after the free jazz and fusion eras.Bebop style also influenced the whose spoken-word style drew on African-American 'jive' dialog, jazz rhythms, and whose poets often employed jazz musicians to accompany them. Would describe his writing in as a literary translation of the improvisations of Charlie Parker and Lester Young. The 'beatnik' stereotype borrowed heavily from the dress and mannerisms of bebop musicians and followers, in particular the beret and lip beard of Dizzy Gillespie and the patter and bongo drumming of guitarist.
The bebop subculture, defined as a non-conformist group expressing its values through musical communion, would echo in the attitude of the psychedelia-era of the 1960s. Fans of bebop were not restricted to the United States; the music also gained cult status in France and Japan.More recently, artists (, ) have cited bebop as an influence on their rapping and rhythmic style. As early as 1983, Shawn Brown rapped the phrase 'Rebop, bebop, Scooby-Doo' toward the end of the hit '.
Bassist collaborated with A Tribe Called Quest on 1991's, and vibraphonist and trumpeter were featured on in 1993. Bebop samples, especially bass lines, ride cymbal swing clips, and horn and piano riffs are found throughout the hip-hop compendium.Musicians. ^ Lott, Eric. Double V, Double-Time: Bebop's Politics of Style. Callaloo, No. 36 (Summer, 1988), pp.
597–605. Tanner, Paul O. And Gerow, Maurice (1964). A Study of Jazz, 81.
Second edition. ^ Gleason, Ralph J. (15 February 1959). Toledo Blade. (2009). Thelonious Monk: The Life and Times of an American Original.
Simon and Schuster. P. 95. Jim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was The First Rock'n'Roll Record?, 1992,. (2006).
Oxford University Press US. Retrieved Jul 9, 2009. Peter Gammond, The Oxford Companion to Popular Music, 1991,. Bird Lives!The High Life And Hard Times of Charlie (Yardbird) Parker, by Ross Russell, p.
89-92, Da Capo Press, 1996, 404 p. Bird Lives!The High Life And Hard Times of Charlie (Yardbird) Parker, by Ross Russell, p. 100-102, Da Capo Press, 1996, 404 p. see Early bebop recordings. ^ (1989) Autobiography, chapter 3, pp. 43–5, 57–8, 61–2. ^.
^. Project, Jazz Discography. Retrieved 14 April 2018. Du Noyer, Paul (2003). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music (1st ed.). Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing. P. 130.
^ Kubik, Gerhard. 'Bebop: a case in point. The African Matrix in Jazz Harmonic Practices.'
(Critical essay) Black Music Research Journal 22 Mar 2005. Digital. Floyd, Samuel A., Jr. The power of black music: Interpreting its history from Africa to the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.
^ Raney, Jimmy and Jamey Abersold. 'Jimmy & Jamey Discuss Charlie Parker',. Gair, Christopher (2008).
The Beat Generation. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. Pp. 16–17. Augustyn, Adam, ed. American Literature from 1945 through today.
Britannica Educational Publishing. P. 101.Further reading. Berendt, Joachim E. The Jazz Book: From Ragtime to Fusion and Beyond. Bredigkeit, H.
With Dan Morgenstern. Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill & Co., 1975. Deveaux, Scott. The Birth of Bebop: A Social and Musical History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Giddins, Gary. Celebrating Bird: The Triumph of Charlie Parker. New York City: Morrow, 1987. Gioia, Ted.
The History of Jazz. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Baillie, Harold B. Swing to Bop: An Oral History of the Transition of Jazz in the 1940s. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Rosenthal, David. Hard bop: Jazz and Black Music, 1955–1965. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Tirro, Frank. 'The Silent Theme Tradition in Jazz'. The Musical Quarterly 53, no.
3 (July 1967): 313–34.External links.